Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant which acts through adenosine receptors and monoamine neurotransmitters. It is an adenosine receptor antagonist and adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterase inhibitor. cAMP levels increase in cells following treatment with caffeine. It releases calcium from intracellular stores and overrides the cell cycle effects of various chemicals such as protease inhibitors, preventing apoptosis. It has also been shown to inhibit cellular DNA repair mechanisms.
1kg, 10kg, 25kg