Fixatives such as formalin or other such aldehyde-based agents readily activate intrinsic protein crosslinking responsible for masking the cellular, membrane and nuclear antigenic sites in tissue samples that lead to a weak or suppressed signal/stain during immuno-histochemical analysis. Citrate buffers are commonly incorporated in antigen detection by breaking the protein crosslinks between antigens and substances in the fixation medium at high temperature treatments, and thereby revealing the antigens/epitopes in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissue sections, in turn enhancing the staining intensity of antibodies. These buffers are also routinely used for RNA isolation, primarily due to their ability to prevent base hydrolysis.
• Used for antigen unmasking during immunohistochemistry and other imaging procedures
• Used in acid phosphatase reactions in conjunction with p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) enzyme substrate
• Used in immunofluorescence-based applications- increases staining intensity without contributing to the non-specific background signal
100 mL, 250 mL, 500 mL