Hordenine is an alkaloid found in plants, especially in the roots of germinating barley and marine algae. It is a metabolite in tyrosine metabolism, biosynthesized from tyramine by two subsequent N-methylations, metabolized by monoamine oxidase. Hordenine is a sympathomimetic and its pharmacological actions are of interest, as it is occasionally found in post race urine samples. Hordenine inhibits melanogenesis by suppression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production. cAMP is involved in the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins. Hordenine may be used in the inhibition of hyperpigmentation. It is present in barley roots from the first day of seed germination, but is not present in seeds.
2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-N,N-dimethylethylamine, 4-(2-Dimethylaminoethyl)phenol, N,N-Dimethyltyramine, p-Hydroxy-N,N-dimethylphenethylamine, Anhaline, Cactine, Eremursin, Peyocactine